Research on Genotype Markers for Plant Height and Assisted Breeding of Key Sorghum Resources in China.

Wang Y, Lv N, Yin F, Duan G, Niu H, Chu J, Yan H, Ju L, Fan F, Lv X, Ping J

Published: 23 January 2024 in Genes
Keywords: breeding resources, molecular markers, plant height gene, sorghum
Pubmed ID: 38254972
DOI: 10.3390/genes15010083

Dwarfing and the selection of optimal plant types constitute the primary focus of sorghum breeding. However, the lack of clarity regarding the gene types associated with plant height genes Dw1-Dw4 in the primary breeding materials has led to increased plant heights in improved offspring of the same plant height type, resulting in unsatisfactory morphological traits. This study aimed to elucidate the gene types related to plant height in breeding materials, validate the regulatory mechanisms, and establish a material improvement system. The goal was to achieve molecular-marker-assisted dwarf breeding through the detection of plant height genes and the test cross verification of main Chinese sorghum materials. Using 38 main male sterile lines and 57 main restorer lines of grain sorghum as materials, three plant height genes were detected and classified. Ninety-five F1 generation hybrids of these materials, along with typical materials, were measured at the wax maturity stage. Test cross results demonstrated that the variation in dw1-dw3 genes in the breeding materials significantly influenced the plant height of hybrid offspring. The main male sterile lines in Chinese sorghum predominantly exhibited the "three-dwarf" type of Kafir and its improved lines, characterized by the genotype (Dw1-Dw2-dw3-dw4). On the other hand, restorer lines mainly showcased the improved "two-dwarf" (Dw1-Dw2-dw3-dw4) genotype of the Kaoliang/Caudatum subspecies, along with the "three-dwarf" type of some Kafir and its improved lines. The test materials predominantly contained dw3 genes, with relatively fewer dw1 genes in the restorer lines. The primary restorer materials lacked the dw2 gene, and dw2 significantly influenced plant type. The increased plant height in improved offspring of the same plant height type material was attributed to differences in gene types. Therefore, the enhancement of plant height in breeding materials should prioritize the use of different methods in conjunction with Dw1 and Dw2 classification.